Scheduled Special Issues
Biogeochemical processes, tropospheric chemistry and interactions across the ocean–atmosphere interface in the coastal upwelling off Peru (BG/OS/ACP/AMT Inter-Journal SI)
The R/V Meteor cruise M91 (Callao-Callao) took place off Peru from 01 December to 26 December 2012. The overall goal of M91 was to conduct an integrated biogeochemical study on the upwelling region off Peru and its adjacent oxygen minimum zone in order to assess its importance for the emissions of various climate-relevant atmospheric trace gases and tropospheric chemistry. The various work packages of M91 included measurements of (1) atmospheric and dissolved trace gases, (2) aerosols, (3) nitrogen processes and isotopes in the water column, (4) dissolved organic matter in the surface microlayer, (5) upwelling velocity, and (6) exchange fluxes across the ocean−atmosphere interface. M91 was funded by the German BMBF project SOPRAN (Surface Ocean Processes in the Anthropocene; http://www.sopran.pangaea.de), which is a contribution to the International SOLAS (Surface Ocean – Lower Atmosphere Study; http://www.solas-int.org).
Air-sea flux climatology; progress and future prospects (BG/ACP/OS Inter-Journal SI)
Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP) (ACP/OS Inter-Journal SI)
Biologically-active regions of the surface ocean support production of a range of compounds that influence aerosol particle production, composition and properties in the overlying marine boundary layer. In February-March 2012 the SOAP (Surface Ocean Aerosol Production) voyage examined biotic influences on aerosol production to the east of New Zealand, by targeting phytoplankton blooms along the Sub-Tropical Front, with the aim of constraining the relationships between DMS and aerosol flux and characteristics, and phytoplankton biomass and community composition, by multi-disciplinary research within three workpackages:
The results of this research voyage will be detailed in this Special Issue, which will contain invited papers only.
The EU Project SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) (ACP/AMT/BG/OS Inter-Journal SI)
The EU project SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) was initiated by a larger international consortium, in order to study the contribution of mostly naturally emitted halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLS) to the stratospheric inventory of ozone destroying halogens. Today the SHIVA consortium comprises about 120 full or associated partners coming from 19 institutions in 9 countries.
SHIVA’s scientific objectives infer from past research that mostly brominated and less likely iodinated VSLS, predominately emitted from biologically active surface waters of the global oceans, are eventually significantly contributing to the halogen load of the global stratosphere. Moreover, theoretical studies revealed that only the combination of sufficiently strong VSLS sources together with efficient vertical atmospheric transport would support a relevant contribution of VSLS to the stratospheric halogen burden. Both conditions are likely to be met in the western Pacific during the wet season (November to March). Since details of the relevant processes and their relevance for stratospheric ozone are yet largely unexplored, four major objectives of EU-SHIVA were identified, namely investigations of:
The special ACP-AMT-BG-OS SI is intended to cover the research performed within the EU project SHIVA and related undertakings. Contributing manuscripts may cover investigations of halogenated VSLS emissions from marine micro- and macro algae, to their atmospheric transport and transformation as well as impacts of VSLS for global ozone studied in the laboratory, field and by theoretical models.
Physical, chemical and biological oceanography of the Mediterranean Sea
The Mediterranean Sea is a semi-enclosed ocean basin composed of several sub-basins separated by straits and channels with depths ranging from a few hundred meters to more than 4000 m. The Mediterranean has an active deep overturning circulation that is sensitive to atmospheric forcing, atmospheric signals and changes in water mass properties can be transported to deep waters on a short time-scale. The Mediterranean Sea has an interesting oceanography with regard to physical, biological and chemical parameters and processes.
During April of 2011, a 3 week long cruise on the German research vessel Meteor (cruise M84/3) conducted a multidisciplinary investigation covering the whole Mediterranean Sea and all of its sub-basins. The cruise was set-up to follow the demands and requirements of repeat hydrography as specified by the GO-SHIP group with the goal to follow the cruise track of previous Meteor cruise through the eastern Mediterranean and a track through the western Mediterranean that has been sampled regularly. Almost simultaneously to the Meteor cruise, two other cruises were conducted in the Mediterranean Sea, on the German R/V Poseidon and on the Italian R/V Urania. These three cruises were conducted in a coordinated way with the main goals to:
This special issue welcomes contributions on all aspects of chemical, physical and biological oceanography of the Mediterranean Sea. Results from the three nearly synoptic cruises in spring of 2011 will be reported in this special issue. However, this special issue is open for contributions covering other projects within the Mediterranean Sea.
Ice-Atmosphere-Ocean interactions in the Arctic Ocean during IPY: the Damocles project (ACP/TC/OS Inter-Journal SI)
Developing Arctic Modelling and Observing Capabilities for Long-term Environmental Studies (DAMOCLES) was the flagship EU project for the IPY. It concerned 47 partners from about 10 European Countries and triggered an active international scientific cooperation with Russia, China, Japan and the USA. At the time the DAMOCLES contract ended about one year ago, more than 150 scientific papers appeared in peer-reviewed publications under DAMOCLES. There are more publications to come as evidenced during the final General Assembly of Damocles in Tromsø, Norway in May 2010. During this final GA it was agreed and decided that DAMOCLES should find an appropriate scientific journal to release an important set of publications based on 6 synthetic papers and up to 30 topical papers. After some investigation it was decided to contact the European Geosciences Union Copernicus Publications to check the adequacy for submitting Damocles results dedicated to Ocean, Atmosphere and Sea Ice sciences in three Copernicus relevant journals: Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), The Cryosphere (TC) and Ocean Science (OS).
Arctic Summer Cloud Ocean Study (ASCOS) (ACP/AMT/OS Inter-Journal SI)
Clouds constitute one of the major uncertainties in understanding the climate system and changes in the clouds as a consequence of global climate change is not well constrained by observations. This is particularly true in the Arctic, where clouds constitute the larges single factor affecting the surface energy balance, and therefore on melting and freezing of sea ice.
ASCOS is a highly interdisciplinary project with a major field experiment in the central Arctic Ocean during August/September 2008, approximately at 87N and 7W, deployed on the Swedish icebreaker Oden as a part of the International Polar Year (IPY). The ASCOS main target is to study the formation and life cycle of Arctic summer low-level clouds. To achieve this we deployed instruments for process level observations in a column from 0.5 km in to the ocean, through the ocean/ice surface up through the atmospheric boundary layer, and to the top of the troposphere (also see http://www.ascos.se). ASCOS measurements range from in-situ observations, to surface-based remote sensing, to airborne observations. The most intense observations were during a 3-week ice drift, starting with typical Arctic summer melt conditions and ending with the initial freeze-up of autumn. ASCOS was also coordinated with the Arctic Mechanisms of Interaction between the Surface and Atmosphere (AMISA) project, providing airborne measurements from the NASA DC8 research aircraft in the vicinity of the ASCOS column, flying in from Kiruna, Sweden.
The science team on Oden consisted of 33 researchers from 14 institutes in 11 different countries; many more are involved in analysis and associated modelling studies. This, and the experimental set-up, makes ASCOS the most extensive atmosphere-oriented experiment in the central Arctic for the entire IPY. ASCOS science cuts across several disciplines, with links to microbial life in ocean and ice, atmospheric chemistry and physics, cloud microphysics, turbulent exchange at the surfaces above and below the ice, and atmospheric circulation. A large part of ASCOS (atmospheric gas and particulate chemistry, aerosol physics, boundary-layer and synoptic meteorology) fall within the remit of ACP while physical oceanography and marine biology/chemistry fall within the remit of OS which is the incentive for a joint ACP/OS issue; only this way will it become possible to develop a special issue spanning the whole width of the science in ASCOS.
VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study (VOCALS) (ACP/OS Inter-Journal SI)
The VAMOS Ocean-Cloud-Atmosphere-Land Study (VOCALS) is an international CLIVAR/VAMOS program designed to develop and promote scientific activities leading to improved understanding, model simulations, and predictions of the southeastern Pacific (SEP) coupled ocean-atmosphere-land system, on diurnal to interannual timescales. The major components of VOCALS are a modeling program with a model hierarchy ranging from the local to global scales, a major international field program (The VOCALS Regional Experiment, VOCALS-REx), and a suite of extended observations from regular research cruises, instrumented moorings, and satellites. The combination of intensive field measurements, long-term observations, and modeling will provide important insights that will directly benefit climate modeling. Some 200 scientists from 40 institutions in 8 nations are currently participating in VOCALS. Details of the three main components of VOCALS are given below.
The SEP climate is a tightly coupled system involving poorly understood interactions between clouds, aerosols, marine boundary layer (MBL) processes, upper ocean dynamics and thermodynamics, coastal currents and upwelling, large-scale subsidence, and regional diurnal circulations, to the west of the Andes mountain range.
Further information on VOCALS can be found on the program website http://www.eol.ucar.edu/projects/vocals.