Scheduled Special Issues

Biogeochemical processes, tropospheric chemistry and interactions across the ocean–atmosphere interface in the coastal upwelling off Peru (BG/OS/ACP/AMT Inter-Journal SI)

  • Guest Editors: H. Bange, A. Chaigneau, A. Engel, C. Garbe, A. Kock, W. Naqvi, B. Thamdrup, B. Ward, C. Robinson, and A. Richter
  • Timeline: 1 Aug 2014 – 31 Jan 2015

The R/V Meteor cruise M91 (Callao-Callao) took place off Peru from 01 December to 26 December 2012. The overall goal of M91 was to conduct an integrated biogeochemical study on the upwelling region off Peru and its adjacent oxygen minimum zone in order to assess its importance for the emissions of various climate-relevant atmospheric trace gases and tropospheric chemistry. The various work packages of M91 included measurements of (1) atmospheric and dissolved trace gases, (2) aerosols, (3) nitrogen processes and isotopes in the water column, (4) dissolved organic matter in the surface microlayer, (5) upwelling velocity, and (6) exchange fluxes across the ocean−atmosphere interface. M91 was funded by the German BMBF project SOPRAN (Surface Ocean Processes in the Anthropocene; http://www.sopran.pangaea.de), which is a contribution to the International SOLAS (Surface Ocean – Lower Atmosphere Study; http://www.solas-int.org).

Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP) (ACP/OS Inter-Journal SI)

  • Guest Editors: C. Law, M. Harvey, M. Smith, P. Quinn, N. Harris, and M. Hoppema
  • Timeline: 01 Jul 2013 – 31 Jul 2015

Biologically-active regions of the surface ocean support production of a range of compounds that influence aerosol particle production, composition and properties in the overlying marine boundary layer. In February-March 2012 the SOAP (Surface Ocean Aerosol Production) voyage examined biotic influences on aerosol production to the east of New Zealand, by targeting phytoplankton blooms along the Sub-Tropical Front, with the aim of constraining the relationships between DMS and aerosol flux and characteristics, and phytoplankton biomass and community composition, by multi-disciplinary research within three workpackages:

  • WP1. Surface ocean biogeochemical links with aerosol precursors;
  • WP2. Exchange rate and physical drivers of the transfer of DMS & CO2 and
  • WP3. Organic emissions, nucleation and interactions with the aerosol distribution in the overlying marine boundary layer.

The results of this research voyage will be detailed in this Special Issue, which will contain invited papers only.

The EU Project SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) (ACP/AMT/BG/OS Inter-Journal SI)

  • Guest Editors: W. T. Sturges, J. Williams, G. Roberts, C. Robinson, and R. Sander
  • Timeline: 01 Sep 2012 – 31 Dec 2014

Background

The EU project SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) was initiated by a larger international consortium, in order to study the contribution of mostly naturally emitted halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLS) to the stratospheric inventory of ozone destroying halogens. Today the SHIVA consortium comprises about 120 full or associated partners coming from 19 institutions in 9 countries.

SHIVA’s scientific objectives infer from past research that mostly brominated and less likely iodinated VSLS, predominately emitted from biologically active surface waters of the global oceans, are eventually significantly contributing to the halogen load of the global stratosphere. Moreover, theoretical studies revealed that only the combination of sufficiently strong VSLS sources together with efficient vertical atmospheric transport would support a relevant contribution of VSLS to the stratospheric halogen burden. Both conditions are likely to be met in the western Pacific during the wet season (November to March). Since details of the relevant processes and their relevance for stratospheric ozone are yet largely unexplored, four major objectives of EU-SHIVA were identified, namely investigations of:

  1. The oceanic emission strengths of a suite of halogenated VSLS
  2. The atmospheric transport and transformation of the halogenated VSLS
  3. The past, present and likely future trend of the total stratospheric halogen burden
  4. The impact of long and short-lived halogenated trace gases and their inorganic product gases for past, present and future ozone within the upper troposphere, TTL and global stratosphere

Synopsis

The special ACP-AMT-BG-OS SI is intended to cover the research performed within the EU project SHIVA and related undertakings. Contributing manuscripts may cover investigations of halogenated VSLS emissions from marine micro- and macro algae, to their atmospheric transport and transformation as well as impacts of VSLS for global ozone studied in the laboratory, field and by theoretical models.