Scheduled Special Issues

Operational oceanography in Europe 2014 in support of blue and green growth

  • Guest Editors: J. A. Johannessen, D. Mills, A. Crise, H. Wehde, H. Bonekamp, P.-Y. Le Traon, and N. Pinardi
  • Timeline: 01 Apr 2015 – 01 Aug 2015

The effects of climate change on the ocean will have an impact on all economic activities at sea, including shipping, fishery, energy, coastal protection, sustainable environmental and ecosystem management, tourism and security. Therefore, there is a demand for timely delivery of high-quality operational oceanographic services and products to support planning over short and long timescales, as they are fundamental for safe performance of marine and maritime activities. Moreover, there is a critical need to inform society, ocean governance and decision making to support a future sustainable knowledge-based maritime economy. User needs for regular, near-real-time and quality-assured services require an operational approach across a wide range of societal benefit areas. This has triggered a new wave of marine knowledge innovation in order to fill the gaps and improve the quality and resolution of the services, e.g. seamless forecasting, an operational ecosystem approach and operational marine climate services.

Oceanographic processes on the continental shelf: observations and modeling

  • Guest Editors: S. Carniel, J. Wolf, V. E. Brando, and L. H. Kantha
  • Timeline: 05 Nov 2014 – 15 May 2015

Oceanographic processes in shelf and coastal regions are among the most relevant ones impacting human life, and at the same time they are difficult to analyze because of their intrinsic multi-disciplinary nature and the effects of boundary conditions.
In order to improve the knowledge of processes typical of these regions, there is a stronger need to proceed towards an integrated approach, i.e., combine numerical coupled systems (of ocean, wind, waves, biology and sediments) at limited scales, with data resulting from distributed coastal observatories (point-wise data from multi-variable buoys, high-frequency radar images, satellite images, drifters, AUVs, gliders, etc.), considering a wide range of aspects (tides, stratification, mixing, land boundaries, distributed run-off, river discharges, pollutants from densely populated areas, etc.).
These issues are even more relevant in a framework of changing climate: shallow coastal and transitional areas, wetlands and lagoons, coastal cities and valuable infrastructure are being threatened by potential impacts of climate-change-induced hazards (more frequent inundation of low-lying areas, exposure to accelerated sea-level rise, increased rates of coastal erosion), while they also very often represent sites where it is economically feasible to harvest renewable energy, or where state-of-the-art prototypes can be more readily deployed for specific studies.

Biogeochemical processes, tropospheric chemistry and interactions across the ocean–atmosphere interface in the coastal upwelling off Peru (BG/OS/ACP/AMT Inter-Journal SI)

  • Guest Editors: H. Bange, A. Chaigneau, A. Engel, C. Garbe, A. Kock, W. Naqvi, B. Thamdrup, B. Ward, C. Robinson, and A. Richter
  • Timeline: 01 Aug 2014 – 31 Jan 2015

The R/V Meteor cruise M91 (Callao-Callao) took place off Peru from 01 December to 26 December 2012. The overall goal of M91 was to conduct an integrated biogeochemical study on the upwelling region off Peru and its adjacent oxygen minimum zone in order to assess its importance for the emissions of various climate-relevant atmospheric trace gases and tropospheric chemistry. The various work packages of M91 included measurements of (1) atmospheric and dissolved trace gases, (2) aerosols, (3) nitrogen processes and isotopes in the water column, (4) dissolved organic matter in the surface microlayer, (5) upwelling velocity, and (6) exchange fluxes across the ocean−atmosphere interface. M91 was funded by the German BMBF project SOPRAN (Surface Ocean Processes in the Anthropocene; http://www.sopran.pangaea.de), which is a contribution to the International SOLAS (Surface Ocean – Lower Atmosphere Study; http://www.solas-int.org).

Surface Ocean Aerosol Production (SOAP) (ACP/OS Inter-Journal SI)

  • Guest Editors: C. Law, M. Harvey, M. Smith, P. Quinn, N. Harris, and M. Hoppema
  • Timeline: 01 Jul 2013 – 31 Jul 2015

Biologically-active regions of the surface ocean support production of a range of compounds that influence aerosol particle production, composition and properties in the overlying marine boundary layer. In February-March 2012 the SOAP (Surface Ocean Aerosol Production) voyage examined biotic influences on aerosol production to the east of New Zealand, by targeting phytoplankton blooms along the Sub-Tropical Front, with the aim of constraining the relationships between DMS and aerosol flux and characteristics, and phytoplankton biomass and community composition, by multi-disciplinary research within three workpackages:

  • WP1. Surface ocean biogeochemical links with aerosol precursors;
  • WP2. Exchange rate and physical drivers of the transfer of DMS & CO2 and
  • WP3. Organic emissions, nucleation and interactions with the aerosol distribution in the overlying marine boundary layer.

The results of this research voyage will be detailed in this Special Issue, which will contain invited papers only.

The EU Project SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) (ACP/AMT/BG/OS Inter-Journal SI)

  • Guest Editors: W. T. Sturges, J. Williams, G. Roberts, C. Robinson, and R. Sander
  • Timeline: 01 Sep 2012 – 31 Dec 2014

Background

The EU project SHIVA (Stratospheric Ozone: Halogen Impacts in a Varying Atmosphere) was initiated by a larger international consortium, in order to study the contribution of mostly naturally emitted halogenated very short-lived substances (VSLS) to the stratospheric inventory of ozone destroying halogens. Today the SHIVA consortium comprises about 120 full or associated partners coming from 19 institutions in 9 countries.

SHIVA’s scientific objectives infer from past research that mostly brominated and less likely iodinated VSLS, predominately emitted from biologically active surface waters of the global oceans, are eventually significantly contributing to the halogen load of the global stratosphere. Moreover, theoretical studies revealed that only the combination of sufficiently strong VSLS sources together with efficient vertical atmospheric transport would support a relevant contribution of VSLS to the stratospheric halogen burden. Both conditions are likely to be met in the western Pacific during the wet season (November to March). Since details of the relevant processes and their relevance for stratospheric ozone are yet largely unexplored, four major objectives of EU-SHIVA were identified, namely investigations of:

  1. The oceanic emission strengths of a suite of halogenated VSLS
  2. The atmospheric transport and transformation of the halogenated VSLS
  3. The past, present and likely future trend of the total stratospheric halogen burden
  4. The impact of long and short-lived halogenated trace gases and their inorganic product gases for past, present and future ozone within the upper troposphere, TTL and global stratosphere

Synopsis

The special ACP-AMT-BG-OS SI is intended to cover the research performed within the EU project SHIVA and related undertakings. Contributing manuscripts may cover investigations of halogenated VSLS emissions from marine micro- and macro algae, to their atmospheric transport and transformation as well as impacts of VSLS for global ozone studied in the laboratory, field and by theoretical models.